Archana Seethapathy, Suvarna Latha Anchapakkula, Nagalakshmamma Kataru
Plants have been a source of herbal remedies throughout the history of mankind. Various medicinal plants have been used for years in daily life to treat diseases all over the world. Screening of medicinal plants for bioactive compounds leads to development of less expensive new antimicrobial agents with improved safety and efficacy. Azadirachtaindica (neem) is a multipurpose tree with multiple health benefits. Different parts of the plant are shown to exhibit antimicrobial effects against a wide variety of microorganisms. Neem (Azadirachtaindica) is recognized as a medicinal plant well known for its antibacterial, antimalarial, antiviral Antiulcer, Antidermatic, larvicidal, Anti-inflammatory, properties. Neem has become valuable plant in the world which shows the solutions for hundreds to thousands problems. The parts of Neem tree such as Root, bark, leaf, flower, seed and fruit together possesses biological activities. Various compounds have been obtained from various parts of neem such as Margolone, margolonone andisomargolonone are tri- cyclic diterpenoids isolated from stem bark are shown to exhibit antibacterial activity. Nimbidin and nimbolide from seed oil show antifungal, antimalarial and antibacterial activity including inhibition of of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However presence of high concentrations of azadirachtins, quercetin and β-sitosterol in A. indica leaves might be responsible for strong antibacterial and antifungal activity compared with bark and seed. It is possible that neem may take a role as an adjuvant to the use of antibiotics or as a replacement of current antibiotics. In the present review the antimicrobial activity in different parts of neem tree has been reported.
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